Prepositions: locators in time and place

L>Prepositions: Locators in Time & Place Prepositions: Locators in Time và Place
A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In itself, a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. For instance, when you bởi vì try to lớn define a preposition lượt thích "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands lớn show how something is situated in relationship khổng lồ something else. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases
. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tover lớn be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner & an adjective sầu or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective sầu or an adverb, locating something in time và space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened. Consider the professor"s desk & all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it.

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You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he"s being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can st& beside the desk (meaning next lớn the desk), before the desk, between the desk và you, or even on the desk (if he"s really strange). If he"s clumsy, he can bump inkhổng lồ the desk or try lớn walk through the desk (& stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk & speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else lượt thích the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what"s in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live sầu without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, khổng lồ the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk.All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood . Those words in bold xanh fonts are all prepositions. Some prepositions vày other things besides locate in space or time — "My brother is lượt thích my father." "Everyone in the class except me got the answer." — but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It is possible for a preposition phrase lớn act as a noun — "During a church service is not a good time khổng lồ discuss picnic plans" or "In the South Pacific is where I long khổng lồ be" — but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing.Clichồng HERE for a menu of comtháng prepositions that will be easy to lớn print out.You may have learned that ending a sentence with a preposition is a serious breach of grammatical etiquette. It doesn"t take a grammarian lớn spot a sentence-ending preposition, so this is an easy rule lớn get caught up on (!). Although it is often easy lớn remedy the offending preposition, sometimes it isn"t, và repair efforts sometimes result in a clumsy sentence. "Indicate the book you are quoting from" is not greatly improved with "Indicate from which book you are quoting." Based on shaky historical precedent, the rule itself is a latecomer khổng lồ the rules of writing. Those who dislike the rule are fond of recalling Churchill"s rejoinder: "That is nonsense up with which I shall not put." We should also remember the child"s complaint: "What did you bring that book that I don"t lượt thích to lớn be read lớn out of up for?"
Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the theater but on television. For native sầu speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to lớn learn another language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are troublesome wherever you live sầu and learn. This page contains some interesting (sometimes troublesome) prepositions with brief usage notes. To address all the potential difficulties with prepositions in idiomatic usage would require volumes, và the only way English language learners can begin khổng lồ master the intricacies of preposition usage is through practice và paying cthảm bại attention khổng lồ speech and the written word. Keeping a good dictionary cthua kém at hvà (khổng lồ hand?) is an important first step.Prepositions of Time: at, on, and inWe use at to designate specific times.

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The train is due at 12:15 p.m.We use on lớn designate days and dates.My brother is coming on Monday.We"re having a tiệc ngọt on the Fourth of July.We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.She likes lớn jog in the morning.It"s too cold in winter lớn run outside.He started the job in 1971.He"s going khổng lồ quit in August.Prepositions of Place: at, on, and inWe use at for specific addresses.Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Duryêu thích.We use on khổng lồ designate names of streets, avenues, etc.Her house is on Boretz Road.And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, và continents).She lives in Durđắm say.Durham is in Windsi County.Windmê mẩn County is in Connecticut.
Prepositions of Location: in, at, and on và No Preposition
IN(the) bed*the bedroomthe car(the) class*the library*school*ATclass*homethe library*the officeschool*workONthe bed*the ceilingthe floorthe horsethe planethe trainNO PREPOSITIONdownstairsdowntowninsideoutsideupstairsuptown* You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations.
Prepositions of Movement: to and No PrepositionWe use to lớn in order to lớn express movement toward a place.They were driving to lớn work together.She"s going to lớn the dentist"s office this morning.Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions khổng lồ express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you.We"re moving toward the light.This is a big step towards the project"s completion.With the words home page, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition.Grandma went upstairsGrandpa went home page.They both went outside.Prepositions of Time: for & sinceWe use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years).He held his breath for seven minutes.She"s lived there for seven years.The British & Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.We use since with a specific date or time.He"s worked here since 1970.She"s been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.Prepositions with Nouns, Adjectives, & Verbs.Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded khổng lồ other words that they have practically become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have sầu become one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.
NOUNS và PREPOSITIONSapproval ofawareness ofbelief inconcern forconfusion aboutdesire forfondness forgrasp ofhatred ofhope forinterest inlove ofneed forparticipation inreason forrespect forsuccess inunderstanding of
ADJECTIVES và PREPOSITIONSafraid ofangry ataware ofcapable ofcareless aboutfamiliar withfond ofhappy aboutinterested injealous ofmade ofmarried toproud ofsimilar tosorry forsure oftired ofworried about
VERBS & PREPOSITIONSapologize forask aboutask forbelong tobring upcare forfind outgive upgrow uplook forlook forward tolook upmake uppay forprepare forstudy fortalk aboutthink abouttrust inwork forworry about
A combination of verb & preposition is called a phrasal verb. The word that is joined khổng lồ the verb is then called a particle. Please refer khổng lồ the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs
for an explanation.Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositionsagree to lớn a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principleargue about a matter, with a person, for or against a propositioncompare to lớn to lớn show likenesses, with lớn show differences (sometimes similarities)correspond lớn a thing, with a persondiffer from an unlike thing, with a personlive sầu at an address, in a house or thành phố, on a street, with other peopleUnnecessary PrepositionsIn everyday speech, we fall into lớn some bad habits, using prepositions where they are not necessary. It would be a good idea lớn eliminate these words altogether, but we must be especially careful not lớn use them in formal, academic prose.She met up with the new coach in the hallway.The book fell off of the desk.He threw the book out of the window.She wouldn"t let the mèo inside of the house. Where did they go to?Put the lamp in baông chồng of the couch. Where is your college at? Prepositions in Parallel Form(Clichồng HERE for a definition & discussion of parallelism.) When two words or phrases are used in parallel & require the same preposition lớn be idiomatically correct, the preposition does not have sầu to be used twice.You can wear that outfit in summer & in winter.The female was both attracted by và distracted by the male"s dance.However, when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions, we must be careful not khổng lồ omit one of them.The children were interested in và disgusted by the movie.It was clear that this player could both contribute to lớn and learn from every game he played.He was fascinated by và enamored of this beguiling woman.Recognizing PrepositionsQuiz on PrepositionsPrepositions at the CrosswordPrepositions at the Crossword IIPrepositions at the Crossword III